Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia.

Ahmad Jamhari, Anas and Sahani, Mazrura and Latif, Mohd Talib and Chan, Kok Meng and Tan, Hock Seng and Khan, Md Firoz and Tahir, M., Norhayati (2014) Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia. Atmospheric Environment, 86 (2014). pp. 16-27. ISSN 1352-2310

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Abstract

Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ),and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA)and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ngm�3 to 2.97 ngm�3, 2.24 ngm�3 to 4.84 ngm�3 and 1.64 ngm�3 to 3.45 ngm�3 respectively.More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk ILCR) from exposure to airborne BaPeq is negligible at all sampling sites for all age specific group.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Particulate matter PAHs Traffic emission Principal component analysis Diagnostic ratio Toxic equivalent factors Health risk assessment
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Faculty / Institute: Faculty Of Health Sciences
Depositing User: Mr Anas AhmadJamhari
Date Deposited: 23 Dec 2014 06:44
Last Modified: 12 Aug 2015 09:15
URI: http://erep.unisza.edu.my/id/eprint/2005

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